Bulletin of the Classical Association of the Pacific Northwest

Volume 30 Number 1 October 1999

NB: The online version of the Bulletin is identical to the hardcopy version, with the exception of a few advertisements, which have been omitted.


















The thirtieth annual meeting of CAPN will be held jointly with CACW (The Classical Association of the Canadian West) in Victoria, British Columbia at the Laurel Point Inn on Friday, March 10 and Saturday, March 11, 2000.

Detailed information regarding the conference schedule and accommodations will be published in the February issue of the CAPN Bulletin. Information on accommodations, and on the conference in general, is already available on the conference website:


Minutes of the 1999 CAPN Meeting

20 March 1999, The Ridpath Hotel

Spokane, Washington

1. The Meeting was called to order at approximately 1:12 PM.

2. The minutes of the 1998 annual meeting were approved.

3. Report on Regional Associations. There was no report this year.

4. National Committee on Latin and Greek: It was moved, seconded and passed that CAPN contribute $165.00 to the NCLG, as we had last year.

5. Professor Charles Odahl (Boise State) reminded members that he is the Northwest Region Representative to the National Membership Committee of the American Society of Church History. He urged CAPN members to consider submitting their work to the Journal of Church History.

6. American Classical League: Ralph Mohr of Oregon was acknowledged as our representative to the ACL.

7. Treasurer's report: Alain Gowing, for Treasurer Catherine Connors, presented the Treasurer's report (please see the report in this Bulletin). The report was accepted.

8. Report of the Scholarship Committee: Celia Luschnig, reporting for Rick Williams, said that the Scholarship Committee had received one application from a high school student in Texas, who had apparently learned of the scholarship through the CAPN website. The Committee recommended that the application be denied on the grounds that the applicant was not from the CAPN region. The membership voted to approve the Committee's recommendation.

It was further proposed and approved that the wording of the Scholarship notice be revised to stipulate that a) the applicant be a resident of, teaching or attending school in the geographical area represented by CAPN and b) the geographical area be defined as Montana, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan.

9. New Officers. The following slate of officers was elected:

President: Ingrid Holmberg, University of Victoria

Vice President: Linda Rutland Gillison, University of Montana

Secretary - Treasurer: Catherine Connors, University of Washington

Editor of the CAPN Bulletin: Alain Gowing, University of Washington

Executive Committee

: Karen Carr, Portland State University; Bill Barry, University of Puget Sound; Fred Lauritsen, University of Eastern Washington; James Clauss, University of Washington

9. New Business: Alain Gowing reported that Greg Daugherty had contacted him about the possibility of holding a joint CAPN/CAMWS meeting in Provo, Utah in the spring of 2001. After brief discussion, this proposal was approved.

10. The membership thanked Fred Lauritsen and Sarah Keller for their work in organizing the successful and pleasant meeting in Spokane; and also extended thanks to the Sahlin Foundation, Elizabeth Barnes, Marjorie Watson, and the Office of the Dean of the EWU College of Arts, Letters and Social Sciences.

11. The meeting was adjourned.

Treasurer's report

(as of March 20, 1999)

Scholarship Fund


Balance as of March 20, 1998




+ Interest (thru 12/31/98)



+ Contributions



-1998 Awards (3)



Balance as of March 20, 1999




General Fund


Balance as of Feb. 27, 1998



+ Deposits


dues, contributions, subscriptions, and conference registration fees



+ Interest (thru 2/25/99)






Sub-Total: 3293.71

- Expenses:


Paid subscriptions











Conference expenses




Balance as of Feb. 25, 1999:



+additional deposits




-outstanding checks




Balance as of April 11, 1999




*(UW has yet to charge us for 10/98 and 2/98 mailings)

Submitted by Catherine Connors

CAPN Secretary-Treasurer

Department of Classics, Box 353110

University of Washington

Seattle WA 98195


Editor's note:

As CAPN members know, each fall we print in this space reports on the activities of member departments and units. If your program or department (high school, college, etc.) is not represented here -- and you would like it to be -- please send the Editor the name and address of a contact person who would be willing to write such a report.

Whitman College

Whitman College has approved the creation of a regular Classics major program. This is the culmination of the increase of our departmental size. This academic year will also see two distinguished Classicists offering lectures on campus. Elaine Fantham will come as Phi Beta Kappa speaker on Oct. 28, and Bernard Fenik will come on Nov. 15.

Portland State University

I [Karen Carr, that is] am pleased to report an excellent year here. Portland State's World Wide Website on Greek Civilization for middle schoolers (http://www.greekciv.pdx.edu/) has had about six million hits in the past year. The Art department has hired a new Byzantinist, Anne McClanan, who recently got her PhD from Harvard and comes to us from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. George Armantrout (PhD, Univ. of Michigan) continues with PSU this fall, teaching the Ancient Art survey in the Art Department. I am very happy to report that Laurie Cosgriff, who recently received her PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, will be reviving the Greek program here this year. Sylvia Kaplan is still teaching classics and Western Civ at local community colleges. Karen Carr went back to Tunisia over the summer: in Tunisia, she worked on the pottery from the rural survey of Leptiminus; four more PSU students went with her and had a great time. She had a chapter in A. Ferreiro, ed., The Visigoths: Culture and Society (Brill 1999). She is on sabbatical this year, and will be returning to Tunisia for the month of October.

The History Department's Web site address is http://www.history.pdx.edu/

University of Oregon

Lowell Bowditch

's book, Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, is forthcoming from the University of California Press, in its series, "Classics and Contemporary Thought."

Jeffrey Hurwit

was a Visiting Scholar at the American Academy in Rome this past summer, working on a new interpretation of the Chigi vase (Villa Giulia). His book on the Athenian Acropolis came out last year.

Mary Jaeger

has a chapter in The Limits of Historiography: Genre and Narrative in Ancient Historical Texts (Brill,1999) ed. by Christina Kraus. It is entitled "Guiding Metaphor and Narrative Point of View in Livy's Ab Urbe Condita."

Steven Lowenstam

's article,"Seneca's Epistle Sixty-five," is forthcoming in the next issue of Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome.

Steven Shankman

coauthored (with Stephen Durrant) The Siren and the Sage: Knowledge and Wisdom in Ancient Greece and China. The press is Cassell/Continuum. He was also a coeditor of The World of Literature, an anthology of world literature from a global perspective (Prentice Hall 1998).

Malcolm Wilson

's book Aristotle's Theory of the Unity of Science is being published by the University of Toronto Press.

Eastern Washington University

Fred Lauritsen

reports that Mrs. Marjorie Watson died on June 16 of this year. She was a rather long-time member of CAPN and attended many of the meetings.

The Spokane AIA lectures include:

Douglas Clark, Walla Walla College: "Archaeological perspectives from Transjordan on the origins of ancient Israel" (September 22, 1999)

John H. Oakley, William and Mary College: "Imaging death in classical Athens: Athenian white lekythoi," (November 10, 1999)

University of Idaho

Galen Rowe

retired in May. His article "Two Responses by Isocrates to Demosthenes," read at CAPN in Portland, has been accepted by Historia. Louis Perraud co-edited with John O'Malley volume 69 of the Collected Works of Erasmus, Spiritualia and Pastoralia, and translated and annotated the piece Virginis et martyris comparatio in the volume which appeared in spring 1999. In May he presented a paper at the International Congress of Medieval Studies, "The Distichs of Cato and Reception History." Celia Luschnig has published several items on the Diotima web site including a translation with notes of Euripides' Alcestis at http://www.uky.edu/AS/Classics/alcestis.html. She is completing her book on the Medea.

Enrolments continue strong with a record number of majors and minors. Through the generous donation of Father Thomas Kennedy of Twin Falls, ID we have been able to create for the first time a study abroad scholarship to go to an outstanding junior or senior classical studies major for summer study in Greece or Italy. Planned for Eta Sigma Phi are lectures by Celia Luschnig, Kathryn Meyer and Mary Jane Engh, and A.L.H. Robkin and, we hope, some others.

University of Puget Sound

The UPS Classics Program has officially become the Classics Department, and now offers both language and classical studies majors. Bill Barry has been promoted to the office of Associate Dean. He is temporarily replaced by Charles King (Ph.D University of Chicago, 1998), Visiting Assistant Professor, teaching ancient history and Latin. His scholarship is in Roman history and religion. Owen Ewald (Ph.D. University of Washington, 1999) is also with us this year, teaching Greek and Mythology; he works on Roman historiography. Ili Nagy is back after a year serving as Professor-in-Charge at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome.

We are looking forward to a symposium on Ancients and Moderns to be held at UPS at the end of March; the schedule includes keynote addresses by Judith Hallett (University of Maryland) and James Tatum (Dartmouth College), in addition to several talks by participants from CAPN institutions.

University of Montana


On Febrary 24, 1999, Marguerite H. Ephron, long-time professor of Classics and Humanities here at The University of Montana-Missoula, died after a brief illness. Marguerite arrived to teach latin in 1935, assuming the Aber line in Classics that was established at the University's founding. Although she retired in 1975, she has continued to be an important figure in the life of Classics and the university: she and her late husband Henry supported a Presidential Leadership Scholar and her constant, enthusiastic participation in campus events and her untiring concern for all of us who were her friends made her petite figure a familiar one amongst us. When she retired, her beginning Latin class presented her with a plaque which well expressed the contributions she made to our community during the time when she "was" Classics here:

"To our very wise and very kind teacher, a learned professor of classical literature, Marguerite Ephron, who for so many years has led so many students to the light of the Latin language and to the wisdom of the illustrious ancients, this class of yours, 1975 A.D., expresses the greatest gratitude. We, both ourselves and those in succession to whom the Latin language will be handed on by us, are your 'monument more lasting than bronze.'"

Marguerite was a gracious, gentle, elegant woman of unmeasured intellect and spirit. We all miss her.


The Classics section welcomed a new colleague this autumn. Lorina Quartarone (Ph.D., U.Washington) is replacing Hayden Ausland during his sabbatical year. Rina carries a full teaching load (5 courses in Classics and one section of Liberal Studies), contributes time, energy, experience, and spirit to the deliberations of the section, and continues at work on exciting research projects. She and John have a beautiful place up in the hills outside town, where they recently treated us to gourmet food, a priceless view, and an evening of comfortable fun. We do our best to keep her busy. We're good at that.


Hayden Ausland

is on sabbatical and is working away at a couple of research projects. We don't see him often, as he seems to divide his time between (mostly) the Stevensville villa south of town where he lives in contented isolation from the pressures of Rome--sorry, Missoula--and Santa Fe and perhaps the Bay Area and....Well, we DON'T see much of him, but he's probably making good use of his research time. In August, as is his custom, he attended the International Conference on Greek Philosophy, this year on Lesvos. His presentation was entitled "Aristotle's Metaphysico-Ethical Horos of Tragedy." The colleagues will, upon his return, raise again the possibility of his directing an intersession program in Greece, as our program has become dormant with the departure of its originator, John Madden. Linda Gillison has somehow been persuaded to chair the university's curriculum committee and spends a lot of her time on the phone and in meetings. She still teaches. She is temporarily sick of the Roman parks--as are, perhaps, most of the members of CAPN who have patiently listened to her numerous presentations on that subject--and has returned to consideration of the elder Agrippina. She (Linda, not Agrippina) will be a Visiting Scholar at the American Academy this January, from which lofty (arduis nubibus and all that) lookout she plans to observe, untroubled, the progress of the Jubilee Year: pilgrims, tourists, and the pickpockets who follow them in equal numbers. She has in the works a piece ("Sed Nihil Dulcius Est...") for the coming number of Memoirs of the American Academy in Rome. Linda serves as section head this year. Forsan et haec olim.... John Hay has just begun the third and final year of his post-retirement contract. This autumn, he's teaching a section of Latin 101 and upper-division Latin (Horace, Catullus). In spring he'll be free, free. As he continues his Italian language study, he may be planning a trip, but he won't say. When last interviewed by this correspondent, he alleged that he had no news. Ho hum. Jim Scott remains as Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and also teaches two courses this year (Survey of Greek and Latin Literature and a section of Latin 102). His research projects are moving right along--religion and love poetry or some such thing....Jim and Anita report, from the ranch, an average hay crop, five pet sheep who enjoy Jim's readings from Theocritus and John 21, three healthy foals, and a partridge in a pear tree.


Classics enrollments continue quite healthy: each section of Latin 101 has 30+ students, and Latin 211 boasts 25--a record for our campus, we think. For the second year, the beginning sections are using the Oxford Latin Course, and for the first time the Oxford Latin Reader is the text for 211. After a nice graduating group last spring, Greek 211 has only 6 students and Latin 300 also 6. Linda Gillison's Women in Antiquity has 15 students and Jim Scott's Survey three--but giants...

ITALIA, 2001

The Classics section will not take students to Italy for its usual intersession program in January, 2000. Crowds and (greater than the usual) confusion threaten to accompany the Jubilee Year, so the section will give Rome a rest from the January invasions by Montanans. Students are already calling with inquiries about the 2001 program, which will be led by Jim Scott or Linda Gillison.

University of British Columbia

1. Phillip Harding starts his second year as Chair of the recently reorganized Department of Classical, Near Eastern and Religious Studies. His predecessor, Tony Barrett, is on 18 months sabbatical and administrative leave and is working on a book on Livia to join his very successful studies of Agrippina the Elder and Caligula; he also continued to direct UBC’s archaeological field school at the Lunt fort in Roman Britain last August.

2. The Department appointed Dr. Elizabeth Cooper to the new position of assistant professor in Near Eastern Art and Archaeology; she is a U. of Toronto PhD who works in Bronze Age Syria

3. The Department has lost three longtime valued members to early retirements in the last year and a half: Anne Dusing, Tony Podlecki, and James Russell; we are now down to eight members on the classical side from thirteen a few years ago but hope for replacements in the near future. Tony is teaching a graduate course for us this fall term, however, and Jim is Professor-in-Charge of the Intercollegiate Centre in Rome.

4. Enrolments continue at a very high level with record undergraduate enrolments and nearly thirty M.A. and Ph.D. students who hold more University Graduate Fellowships (11) than we have ever had in the past.

5. Hector Williams was elected President of AIA Canada last December and continues as as well as an Academic Trustee of the AIA. He received a large three year grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada last spring to continue his excavations at ancient Stymphalos in the Peloponnese. He dug there last summer with crew of over 50, uncovering more of an Athena sanctuary, the city’s defenses, late antique cemeteries, and the city’s houses. There is increasing evidence for a partial destruction of the city in the late 4th c. B.C. as well as destruction and abandonment in the mid second, probably after Mummius’ destruction of Corinth. He was awarded a medal this summer by the Governor of the Corinthia for services to that Greek province. Together with former UBC graduate student Marcus Niemann he recently created a special exhibition on terracotta and bronze lamps of the ancient world at UBC’s Museum of Anthropology (on display to December 1999). He also lectured this fall at the AIA chapters in Oxford (Mississippi), Charleston (SC), and Tampa (FL) as well as presenting a paper in late August at the triennial international symposium on shipbuilding in antiquity (held near Kalamata in Greece).

6. Echos du Monde Classique/Classical Views n.s. 17, no. 3 is an enlarged (300 pp.) special issue of this journal of the Classical Association of Canada on the history of modern classical scholarship. It is edited by Robert Todd. It includes a lively interchange on the relative significance of Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann in the excavation of Troy between Susan Allen (Calvert's biographer) and Edmund Bloedow, and nine other articles, including ones on Jane Harrison and the Cambridge Ritualists, the genesis of E.R. Dodds's The Greeks and the Irrational, and T.R. Glover's time in Canada. Jim Russell has a particularly interesting study of the AIA in Canada in the years 1908-15, and Alan Evans a lively review article on the Black Athena controversy. Copies at a cost of C$10 can be ordered from: University of Calgary Press, 25000 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4. University of Calgary

Willamette University

Mark Usher

and Ann Nicgorski reporting:

The Classics continue to garner support and enthusiasm at Willamette University. Last year the University implemented a new interdisciplinary major in Classical Studies. This year, funded by a sizeable grant from the Rose Tucker Foundation, Willamette instituted a new, required freshman seminar on fifth-century Athens. Through this program we have been able to bring many speakers to campus, including Garry Wills, Elaine Fantham, and West Coast notables Ruby Blondell (UW), Peter Euben (Santa Cruz), Carolyn Dewald (Santa Barbara), Jeffrey Hurwit (UO) and Bruce Thornton (Cal State, Fresno). For the University's opening convocation this Fall, Peter Meineck of the Aquila Theatre Company, directed Willamette students in a performance of scenes from Lysistrata.

University of Calgary

There have been substantial changes in the face(s) of the Department of Greek, Latin & Ancient History in the last couple of years, with the retirements of Barry Baldwin (June 1997), Michael and Mary Walbank (June 1998), and Bob Schmiel (Dec. 1998), and the transfer of Michael Dewar to the University of Toronto where he is now Associate Professor and undergraduate coordinator. Barry and Bob are still with us in Calgary, while Mary and Michael are established at Sidney (near Victoria) on Vancouver Island.

We have also said a regretful farewell to Carol Reader, our Administrative Coordinator of recent years, who is moving with her husband to the University of Windsor. Linda Sharpe is now settling in as Carol's successor.

John Humphrey

is on a more than merited sabbatical leave after completing three years as Associate Dean plus five years as Department Head plus one year as Acting Dean. He is currently in Turkey refreshing his acquaintance with a number of archaeological sites.

We welcome the continued presence of Reyes Bertolin Cebrian as visiting assistant professor and Michael Cummings, David Mirhady, Kelly Olson and David Lamari as sessional instructors; and we congratulate Kelly and David L. on the birth of their daughter Katharine in September. Welcome also to Michael Carter and Nadine Brundrett who have joined us as sessional instructors from McMaster University, where Michael has just completed a doctoral dissertation on gladiatorial spectacles in the Greek East and Nadine is completing hers on the funerary remains from Pompeii.

Peter Toohey

will take up an appointment as Professor in our department in January 2000, moving here from the University of New England in Australia. Peter took his BA and MA at Monash University, and his PhD at the University of Toronto. He is well known for his recent books Reading Epic and Epic Lessons, and the volume Inventing Ancient Culture which he co-edited with Mark Golden (University of Winnipeg). In May 2000 Peter will inherit the department headship from a grateful Martin Cropp who is currently acting head.

Reed College

Enrollments remain healthy in language classes, including a record eleven seniors who are writing senior theses and will be graduating this year in Classics. Richard Tron is teaching Intermediate Latin (Cicero's Pro Caelio), Advanced Greek (Euripides' Medea), and a graduate seminar in Reed's MALS program on Augustan Rome. Walter Englert gave a talk at last year's APA meeting in Washington D.C. on "Fanum and Philosophy: Cicero and the Death of Tullia," and continues to make progress on his translation of Lucretius. He also was the coordinator of the eleventh annual Reed Latin Forum for Oregon and Washington high school Latin teachers and students in November, 1998, and assisted the Classic Greek Theater company stage a production of Sophocles' Antigone (in English) at the Reed College amphitheater in September, 1999. Nigel Nicholson has been on leave for Fall '99, working on a book on the representation of charioteers and trainers in Pindar's odes and other archaic victory monuments. Parts of the book appeared as papers at the CAPN and APA meetings. A couple of articles will also be appearing soon: "Pederastic Poets and Adult Patrons in Late Archaic Lyric" in Classical World, and "Polysemy and Ideology in Pindar Pythian 4.229-230" in Phoenix. Geoffrey Schmalz is at Reed for a second year, teaching Greek history courses, Intermediate Greek, and Freshman Humanities. Geoffrey has been particularly effective helping Reed students who are interested in exploring opportunities in classical archaeology. This past summer he helped Reed students participate in the Agora excavations in Athens and the summer program at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. Catherine Keane has joined the department as a one-year visiting assistant professor. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1999, and wrote her dissertation on "Model Behavior: Generic Construction in Roman Satire." Catherine is teaching beginning Latin, Advanced Latin (Roman Satire), and Freshman Humanities.

Boise State University

Dr. Charles Odahl of History and Classical Languages gave a slide presentation at the spring CAPN Conference in Spokane on "Christian Symbolism on Constantinian Coinage," and displayed a half dozen relevant bronze and gold coins from the period for the audience. This past winter and spring, he served as a consultant for the Granada Media Millennia Project, which produced 20 programs for a television series recounting the 20 centuries of Christian history entitled 2000 Years of Christianity. The series played on London Weekend Television in Great Britain and Ireland from April to August, and will run on American Television next year. Odahl appeared in Program Four on "Constantine and the Fourth Century" (along with Dr. Chris Kelly of Cambridge and Bishop Rowan Williams of Monmouth). This autumn, he served as the guest speaker for the fall colloquium of the Medieval Society of Southern Idaho, giving an hour slide lecture on "Constantine and the Millennial City--A Slide Tour of Ancient and Byzantine Constantinople"; and he also hosted Dr. Hans Pohlsander of SUNY, Albany, for a guest lecture at BSU on "Helena in History, Cult, and Legend." The latter events took place on October 8th & 20th, and were billed as "Byzantine Nights in Boise." Odahl is still serving as a book reviewer for the journals Church History and The Ancient World; and as the Northwest Region Member of the National Membership Committee for the American Society of Church History. He is finishing his book Constantine and the Christian Empire this winter, and it is scheduled for publication in the Routledge "Roman Imperial Biographies" series in late 2000.

Dr. Lee Ann Turner of the Art History program has had two articles published: "New Daedalica: A Figured Lead Pendant from the Kastro at Kavousiö in Post Minoan Crete, and "The Basileia at Lebadeia" in Boeotia Antiqua VI. She presented a paper entitled "A Cross-Dressing Consort: The Rise and Fall of the Omphale Myth in Western Art" at the October 1999 Barnard Feminist Art and Art History Conference.

Adjunct Professor Brian O'Grady is teaching a full section of over twenty students in Elementary Ancient Greek at BSU this fall. He has recently been ordained a Deacon in the Antiochan Orthodox Church, and is serving as Pastor for a new Orthodox Mission Church in Boise.

University of Washington

This fall we welcome to our burgeoning faculty two new Acting Assistant Professors, Paul Scotton and Mark Buchan. Paul is filling in for Merle Langdon, who is off for a three-year stint as Mellon Professor of Classical Studies at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens. Paul, who did his graduate work at the University of Pennsylvania, brings to the Department considerable archaeological expertise, with special interests in Greek and Roman architecture, Asia Minor and, most especially, Roman Corinth. With the decampment of Michael Halleran to post of Divisional Dean for the Arts and Humanities, Mark offers expertise in Greek tragedy, epic, and Marxist and psychoanalytic theory. Mark received his PhD in Classical Studies from the University of Michigan in 1996, and was an Andrew Mellon Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Humanities at Northwestern University from 1997-99. We count ourselves very fortunate indeed to have attracted two stellar scholars and teachers.

More detailed information about the various happenings in the Department of Classics will be forthcoming in the winter issue of the Bulletin. At that time we hope to share with CAPN members some truly momentous news from the Department. That should get you to read the next issue!


(19-20 March 1999, Spokane, Washington)

The Full Meaning of the Number Three in Classical World Literature

Garrett Kenney

Eastern Washington University

This paper sets forth evidence and argumentation which suggests that references involving the number three, and often multiples thereof (e.g. thirty, three-hundred, three-thousand), are predominately symbolic, rather than literal, in usage. References have been selected mostly form the classics of world literature. However, some interesting but obscure references have been included. Among the classics referred to are: the Gilgamesh epic; selections from Zoroastrian literature; the Bible (selections from both Old and New Testaments); Talmudic and Midrashic literature; Josephus & Philo; Homer's Iliad & Odyssey; selections from Plato's writings; Virgd's Aeneid; selected medieval classics (e.g. Beowulf, Song of Deidree; Song of the Seeress; Thomstein the Staff Struck; Dante); selected Hindu literature; selected Buddhist literature; selected Sikh literature; and selections from Native American literature. Obscure references, for example, have been taken from accounts such as those found concerning male initiation rituals from New Guinea tribal life.

The symbolic understanding and interpretation of the number three in the selections cited does not always eliminate or exclude a literal interpretation. Rather, an analysis of the context of the passages considered suggests that the symbolic value of the number three is evident, emphasized, and to be preferred. Exceptions are noted and additional examples (or exceptions) to the pattern suggested in this paper are solicited. The only concordance facilitating a quick reference to occurrences of the number three, known to the presenter of this paper, is that of the Bible. Hence, occurrences for all other literature have been noted by continual reading.

The introduction of this paper sets forth a theoretical foundation for understanding precisely the meaning of the symbolic import of the number three. Based on considerations from geometry, physics, and grammar the number three is understood to stand for that which is solid, real, substantial, complete, or entire. This theoretical orientation is then applied to the diverse literature mentioned above, confirmed through contextual analysis and argumentation, inviting further examples of the same or exceptions to the rule.

Ancient Greek Music in the Classroom

Luke R. Henderson

University of Massachusetts

Music was an important part of Ancient Mediterranean Culture. Unfortunately, it has often been excluded from the Classics curriculum of secondary schools because the scholarship on Ancient Greek Music tends to be inaccessible.

This paper will provide background information and teaching materials for instruction of six aspects of Ancient Greek Music in the secondary-school or college classroom. These six aspects are musical instruments, Plato and Aristotle on music in education, music in ancient life, harmonic theory, ancient musical notation, and extant musical evidence.

Medea in Corinth II: Politics of the Choral Odes

C.A.E. Luschnig

University of Idaho

Politics in ancient Athens, as we all know, belonged to men. And yet the Medea, though about a woman among women and a woman's power, is recognized as one of Euripides' most political plays. William Arrowsmith (1963:47), for example, called it "a comprehensive critique of the quality and state of contemporary culture." More recently, Rainer Friedrich (1993) refers to the play as "Euripides' dramatization of the crisis of the polis." In Creon's Corinth there is no public debate, no chorus of elders, no chance for the use of reason. Creon himself is king, herald, and judge. In this vacuum of civic life the chorus of Corinthian women becomes the voice of the citizen body raised in protests against injustice and the domination of bad men.

The parodos and first three formal choral odes all provide social commentary:


: Nurse, chorus, Medea, sing about justice (157), tyranny (119ff), democracy (122-3).

First Stasimon:

Women will get their due. The old songs, because they are men's songs, and men are liars, are false. The universe is in revolt. It may take some time for it to reach a balance.

Second Stasimon:

Love is best in moderation; in excess it does not lead to virtue. The chorus is more
pÒliw-centered than their king, to whom his child was more than his country. Without a pÒliw one has no f¤loi.

Third Stasimon:

Athens, where it is always spring, looks like a perfect society from the outside. Nationalistic paeons may instill a proud complacency, but they have another mission: to inspire the citizens to live up to their myths and to bring patriotic tears over the inanition of their ideals.

By the end of the play, the political element is nearly eclipsed by religious awe and human horror.

Christian Symbolism on Constantinian Coinage

Charles Odahl

Boise State University

After the conversion of Constantine to Christianity in 312, Christian symbols and motifs slowly appeared on Roman imperial coinage while pagan deities and motifs gradually disappeared. In some cases, the new symbols were a part of the basic iconographical design of the coins, and probably originated in the central court and represented the official policy of Constantine. In other cases, the Christian signs were added to the basic design of the coins as control marks or decorative embellishments, and probably originated in the regional niints and reflected the religious predilections of mint administrators and workers who felt free to employ Christian devices under a Christian emperor. This slide presentation surveys the use of Christian symbolism on Constantinian coins and medallions, and assesses the extent to which this usage reflects the religious beliefs and policies of Constantine the Great.

The Arts of Poets, Trainers and Wrestlers, and Pindar's Nemean 4

Nigel Nicholson

Reed College

Art is the central ideological concern of Pindar's Nemean 4. Art was often considered to be opposed to the natural abilities thought to justify an aristocrat's power, and was particularly implicated in commodity exchange, not the gift exchange economy symbolic of the aristocratic families. Three of the central figures in this aristocratic victory celebration are, however, strongly associated with the use of art: the poet (on whom previous criticism of the ode's ideology has focused), the victorious wrestler, and his trainer. This paper examines the ideological problems of wrestling and training, and how in the course of the ode the use of art is repackaged as properly aristocratic through a suitably refigured image of wrestling. The conclusion will use this framework to reexamine the textual crux of 57-58, where Peleus seems to be associated with the use of "tricky arts."

Amazons in Greek and Czech Sagas

S.F. Danes

Univ. of Puget Sound

There are interesting similarities between Greek and Czech sagas about ruling and fighting women, but there are also important differences. The consistency of the sagas indicates that there may be a grain of truth beneath the later poetic license. Here we suggest that:

1) The Slavic tribes were a part of what the ancient historians and geographers called "hoi skythoi"

2) Those tribes went through a short period of matriarchal system

3) That system came to an abrupt and violent end

We have historical, geographical, and linguistic arguments in favor of this interpretation.

Makers of Athenian Trade Policy

Darel Tai Engen

Gonzaga University

The relationship between trade and politics has been a key issue in the long-running debate about the ancient Greek economy. Yet there exists no study of the trade policies of Greek city-states that examines the policy makers themselves and their proposals relating to trade. This paper will offer a preliminary examination of the most prominent makers of Athenian trade policy in the fourth century and show not only that their interests were broader than has heretofore been realized, but also that their proposals may have profoundly changed the economy of Athens.

Slaves for Wine: Romano-Gallic Trade Connections

Erik Anderson

Eastern Washington University

By the time Julius Caesar conquered most of what was then Gaul, the Roman and Gallic worlds had already been heavily intertwined. Roman traders had penetrated well into the heart of Gaul, bringing with them elements of Roman material culture well in advance of the Roman military.

Gallic society of the Late La Tene period was very hierarchical, with the elite maintaining power through the ritualized use of prestige activities, one being the acquisition of foreign trade items of Roman origin. Roman agricultural society in Italy during the Late Republic was one of change. Slave-labored latifundia estates began to appear and grow, providing the economic basis for Rome's elite. The production of wine and olives replaced the earlier emphasis on cereal production.

Economically, these two worlds came together over several points of trade. The one considered here is the trade of Italian wine for Gallic slaves. The economies of both societies were intrinsically intertwined with their respective political structures. Politically, at least partially, the elite of both the Gallic and Roman societies were at least, semi-dependent on that trade in order to maintain their positions as elites within those societies.

Clodius: Beyond the Pale


Linda Rutland

University of Montana

In the pro Milone, Cicero attempted to defend T. Annius on charges of the murder of P. Clodius. In this paper, I examine a pattern of references which located Clodius beyond the pale of urbanism and civilization, depicting him not as the "enemy within the gates" but as the enemy beyond the boundaries.

Although reference to the suburban "murder' (on the Via Appia) might well have occasioned a tirade on Clodius' urban career, Cicero virtually ignores Clodius' actions within the city and focuses on his suburban and non-urban career, linking him strongly with the transgressions of diverse boundaries. Within the texture of pro Milone,

1) Clodius' property and power ambitions "centered" on the margin: (74, 75: horti and villae; 26, 50, 55, 87: Etruscan properties).

2) Clodius led "armies" composed of transgressive personnel in pursuit of his goals (26: servos agrestes et barbaros in Etruria; 75: servorum exercitus based on no grant of imperium, his leadership of "armies" was itself transgressive).

3.) Clodius trampled the rights of private property: (74: used his arma castraque to divest citizens and neighbors of their horti, villae, and Etruscan holdings; built his own structures in alieno, when he was unable to extort from its owner).

4) He lived outside the limits of civil religion, destroying altars (85: Albanorum obrutae arae) and defiling religious locales in the suburbs (85: Albani tumuli atque luci, editus mons lovis Latiaris) to make way for the mad and hubristic private buildings (58: substructionum insane moles; 53: insane illae substructiones).

5) At his death, he remained beyond the pale of religious ritual, his body burned (86) sine imaginibus ... sine funere. Thus Cicero can repeatedly contemplate his imminent and catastrophic return from beyond the ultimate limit: ipsum ab inferis excitare (79); excitate, excitate ipsum ... ab inferis (91).

Topography was a favorite weapon in Cicero's rhetorical arsenal. In pro Milone, he skillfully constructs P. Clodius as a man wild and treacherous, beyond the pale of civilization as the city defined it (and as it defined the city) a roving phenomenon of the wilderness for whose death the civitas owed T. Annius a vote of thanks rather than a sentence of exile.

Granius Licinianus and the Inversion of Hadrianic Propaganda

Owen Ewald

University of Washington

The Roman emperor Hadrian linked himself to prominent figures of the past through his propaganda. As appropriate for a philhellenic Roman emperor, Hadrian not only forged links to Roman figures such as Pompey the Great (Birley 1997, 235, 237), but also to Hellenistic Greek figures such as Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Birley 1997, 62-64, 228). In the second century CE, Granius Licinianus, writing a history of the Roman Republic, unfavorably portrays these two figures, Pompey (Granius 36.2-4) and Antiochus (Granius 28.2-9), who are prominent in Hadrianic propaganda. Granius even changes historical details to strengthen similarities between Hadrian and both Pompey and Antiochus. Thus by inverting Hadrianic propaganda, Granius Licinianus can attack Hadrian indirectly.

Tiger Tamers, Tax Collectors, Poets and Politicians: Researching Active Women in the Roman World

Kathryn Meyer

Washington State University

Mary Jane Engh

The planned Biographical Dictionary of Active Women in the Roman World discussed in the presentation will include thousands of individuals ranging form slaves to empresses, from the virtually unknown (and sometimes anonymous) to the famous and infamous. Entries are based entirely on ancient sources: historical, literary, epigraphical, and papyrological. The work will be organized by field of activity, with extensive cross referencing. The authors hope that the new accessibility of this information will enable students and scholars to reach more realistic conclusions on the roles of women in the Roman world.

Native Auditors of Latin: Pedagogy and Results of a Bold Linguistic Experiment

James M. Scott

University of Montana

From the very moment of his three daughters' births, Rob Natelson has spoken only Latin to them. Natelson, a University of Montana Law professor, carefully prepared this linguistic experiment during his wife's first pregnancy. Latin having been chosen, he worked out matters of pronunciation, modem vocabulary, and pedagogy. Twelve years later, his daughters naturally understand all of their father's Latin speech to them, speech that ranges from typically paternal injunctions about their messy bedrooms and TV time to discussions about school assignments and summer vacations. Currently the Natelson girls are reading and writing Latin at a level just a bit below that of their corresponding English skills. Through the circumstances are vastly different, as Latin teachers we can nevertheless find inspiration and technique from the Natelson experience. Oral/aural skills in Latin are attainable in any degree, and Natelson's techniques could effectively supplement the traditional Latin methods.

[NB: The following papers were delivered as part of a roundtable discussion on 'Classics outside of the Classics Classroom']

Christine de Pizan: A Model of Classical Rhetoric for Use in the Composition

Iris Gribble-Neal

Eastern Washington University

Composition teachers are striving to introduce alternative methods of discourse into their classrooms. Teaching traditional forms of rhetoric is not outdated, but rhetoric needs to expand its boundaries. Teachers need more examples of historical women rhetors to use in their teaching of composition. Christine de Pizan is an outstanding example of a successful woman in the 14th Century who used the taxonomy of classical rhetoric to write for and about women. Her first serious foray into her discourse on women is The Book of the City of Ladies. I propose to apply Aristotle's style and taxonomy for encomium from Rhetoric to Christine de Pizan's work. I have been unable to locate articles on de Pizan that compare her writing to classical rhetoric. I intend to attempt such a comparison, exploring the art of rhetoric and, at the same time, looking for differences between female rhetors and male rhetors.

(no title)

Galen Leonhardy

Eastern Washington University

I am thinking that propaganda is well within the range of the epideictic. Accordingly, what aspects of Aristotle and Menander's discussions on the epideictic form promote the use of propaganda (maintenance of power stuff). Additionally, knowledge generated in the last 100 years should also have links to propaganda. That is, I have also been thinking about State of the Union speeches as epideictic. That concept fits both the propaganda focus and the epideictic edge.

(no title)

Rebecca Schopfer

Montana State University

No Classics option exists as Montana State University, but there seems to be interest in one. When a Latin class was formed by three students, the enrollment jumped to twelve, simply by word of mouth. Recently, some members of the English and History Departments have been considering an addition of a Classics minor to the curriculum, but very little has been done in that direction, partially because no one knows what interest exists. I plan to perform a survey of the student body in an attempt to discover the amount of interest in such an option.

(no title)

Scott Furois

Montana State University

A current hot topic in computer science is object-oriented programming. However, many current computer science textbooks are unable to present the object-oriented paradigm in a clear and sensible manner.

The Categories

of Aristotle, on the other hand, offer a grand example of an object-oriented hierarchy, complete with objects, derived objects, changing methods, and built-in samples of the most powerful and useful features in object-oriented design. I hope to explore the possibilities in using The Categories as an aide to the introduction of the object-oriented paradigm.

Classical Thoughts in Comp Theory

Quint Ringsak

Montana State University

In recent decades there has been a steady increase in the emphasis placed on methods of teaching composition, both at the university and high school levels. This paper will be an investigation of the presence of classical thought in an examination of classical contributions to modern Composition Theory. I shall be doing extensive research into the origins of composition theory, changes that have recently occurred, and whether they have brought composition theory closer or further from its classical roots. There will be a particular emphasis on the 1966 Dartmouth Conference and classical influence on the field before and after it. From current questions regarding the focus of composition instruction, to its rhetorical origins in antiquity, there may be more classical connections to composition than are commonly recognized.

[NB: Also participating in the roundtable discussion were Dana Elder, of Eastern Washington University, and Carol Poster and Rory Brecker, both of Montana State University.]


Epistula Generalis de SALVI Instituto deque Latinitate Viva in America Inter Septentriones et Occasum Solis Spectanti Propaganda

Stephanus Berard sodalibus CAPN societatis salutem plurimam dicit.

Abhinc unum fere annum et dimidium societati vestrae ascriptus, conventibus tamen vestris, id quod sane dolendum est, nondum interesse potui. Causa autem, ut mihi quidem videtur, digna fuit; nam eodem temporis spatio viatica omnia a collegio meo ad itinera conclaviaque mihi suppeditata adhibui ut "Septentrionalis Americae Latinititatis Vivae Instituti" (SALVI) conventus duos participarem, primum Californiensem, secundum Munciae, in civitate Indiana, habitum. Cuius instituti sodalibus, ut hodie vel aliis in dies pluribus, parum idonea videtur consuetudo hodierna linguae Latinae ut emortuae docendae--scilicet ut tantum ad legendum scribendumque aptae. Satis enim compertum habemus linguarum praeceptores linguam quamvis melius penitiusque disci posse si discentes non solum legunt et scribunt sed etiam, ut natura ipsa praescribit, lingua cui student colloquuntur. Quod egomet ipse hoc anno sane inter Latinitatis vivae studium comperi. Rationem suam SALVI Institutum his verbis explicit: "Obtestetur aliquis nil cuiquam prodesse lingua loqui mortua, sed hoc false, nam nullus sermo aut vivus aut mortuus: omnia ex usu pendent! Itaque cum plus in dies studia Latina in universitatibus nostris neglegi viderimus ceterasque studentibus opibusque augeri disciplinas, oportere censuimus et nos ipsas docendi methodos adhibeamus, quarum usus in studiis ceterarum linguarum hodie vigeat. Nemo enim quod ipse nescit vere docere potest."

His temporibus consilium Latine colloquendi maxime in Europa (praesertim in Finnia, Polonia, Germania, Italia, Francia, Britannia) viget. Usque ad hunc diem Latinitas viva latius in nostrae patriae parte septentrionali et orientali nec minus in California diffusa est. Cum ergo regio nostra Latine confabulantium nondum referta sit, vos, sodales doctissimi humanissimique, rogare velim si quis vestrum ad Latine de lingua disciplinaque Latina vel de quibuslibet aliis rebus sermonicandum, sive sub patrocinio SALVI sive arbitrio nostro, mecum convenire velit. Haud scio an commodissimum sit et apud ipsos consociationis CAPN conventus sessionem de Latinitate viva instituere. Ex SALVI Instituti rectoribus vel aliunde satis facile erit aliquem Latine loquendi peritissimum invitare qui sessionibus praesit. Itaque peto ut ad me apud sberard@wvcmail.ctc.edu opiniones vestras mittatis.

Inspicienda etiam sunt et pagina domestica SALVI (http://www.latin.org/latin/index.shtml) et Retiarius (http://www.uky.edu/ArtsSciences/Classics/retiarius/) et Draconis Pagina Latina de Latinitate viva (http://www.obta.uw.edu.pl/~draco/) et Nuntii Latini (http://www.yle.fi/fbc/latini/) qui ultimi sunt commentarii hebdomadales de rebus his in diebus gestis.



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